Initial efforts began in the s as a critical response to the famine facing the population. But it soon levelled off, prompting officials to seek more drastic measures. In they introduced a policy requiring couples from China's ethnic Han majority to have only one child the law has largely exempted ethnic minorities. The birth control policies implemented varied at the national and local level. National policies, such as the one-child policy, were applicable throughout the whole country, but local policies, such as penalties for above-quota births, varied between regions, such as rural and urban, or between provinces. China had been actively influencing its population growth for several years, beginning after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in , when Mao Zedong encouraged the population to grow in order to increase manpower.
China’s Population Policy: One-Child Policy and Impacts
A Look at How China Controls Its Population
The aim of this policy was to attempt to control population growth. The policy limited couples to one child. Under this policy couples have to gain permission from family planning officials for each birth. If families followed this policy they received free education, health care, pensions and family benefits. These are taken away if the couple have more than one child.
China’s Looming Crisis: A Shrinking Population
There have been significant outflows and returns of Chinese migrants from various homelands in the past two to three decades, and they have generated media attention, sparked policy debate, and prompted academic researchers in new directions of investigations. First it was the exodus of highly educated professionals with transferable skills leaving their Chinese homelands Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the People's Republic of China [PRC] for various new destinations in the Pacific Rim. For example, between the signing of the Sino-British Agreement in Hong Kong and its reversion to China in , an estimated , Hong Kong citizens left, voting with their feet. Similar to their Hong Kong counterparts, the Taiwanese emigrated in large numbers in the late s when the home government ended military rule, relaxed the right of travel, and allowed the Taiwanese to take liquid assets abroad. Migrants from the PRC were comparatively the most recent group to emigrate, but quickly made up for lost time with their overwhelming numbers.
Introduction 1. During this period, the number of passenger journeys exceeded the population of China hitting 2. For instance, the railway network is insufficient to handle the number of passengers and does not cover enough places.