Under what circumstances do new constitutions promote democracy? Between and , the level of democracy increased in 62 countries following the adoption of a new constitution, but decreased or stayed the same in 70 others. Using data covering all new constitutions in countries during that period, we explain this divergence through empirical tests showing that overall increased participation during the process of making the constitution positively impacts postpromulgation levels of democracy. Then, after disaggregating constitution-making into three stages drafting, debating, and ratification we find compelling evidence through robust statistical tests that the degree of citizen participation in the drafting stage has a much greater impact on the resulting regime. This lends support to some core principles of "deliberative" theories of democracy. We conclude that constitutional reformers should focus more on generating public "buy in" at the front end of the constitution-making process, rather than concentrating on ratification and referendums at the "back end" that are unlikely to correct for an "original sin" of limited citizen deliberation during drafting.
Analytical Thinking and Critical Thinking
Analytical Thinking and Critical Thinking - The Peak Performance Center
Analytical Thinking and Critical Thinking. Some people assume that analytical thinking and critical thinking are one in the same. However, that is incorrect. Although there are similarities, there are distinct differences between the two.
These model paragraphs show how a student has successfully identified the legal issues and applied those issues to the facts of the law. In this model, the first sentence identifies the relevant legal argument while the second applies the law to the facts of the case. Lord Atkin's 'neighbour test suggested that person A owes a duty of care if B is sufficiently proximate to A.
For centuries, the study of logic has inspired the idea that its methods might be harnessed in efforts to understand and improve thinking, reasoning, and argument as they occur in real life contexts: in public discussion and debate; in education and intellectual exchange; in interpersonal relations; and in law, medicine and other professions. Informal logic is the attempt to build a logic suited to this purpose. It combines the study of argument, evidence, proof and justification with an instrumental outlook which emphasizes its usefulness in the analysis of real life arguing. Informal logic is usually understood narrowly, as a contemporary field of study which emerged in the last half century, when many philosophers and logicians turned their attention to the analysis, evaluation and improvement of real life argument.