History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology. The term anthropology itself, innovated as a New Latin scientific word during the Renaissance , has always meant "the study or science of man". The topics to be included and the terminology have varied historically. At present they are more elaborate than they were during the development of anthropology. For a presentation of modern social and cultural anthropology as they have developed in Britain, France, and North America since approximately , see the relevant sections under Anthropology. It first appears sporadically in the scholarly Latin anthropologia of Renaissance France, where it spawns the French word anthropologie , transferred into English as anthropology.
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Bibliography | a history of social anthropology
After examining and critiquing his formulation, I want briefly to contextualize his work in the understandings of functionalism of the other authors we read this week. What are its limitations and the implications of these limitations? In the attempt to articulate a comprehensive theory of the study of people, I want to suggest that functionalism as an anthropological lens gives short shrift to both the concept of agency  - loosely defined as individual choice, the ability to choose, and causal power - as well as the process of symbolization which may be both functionally related and unrelated to the integration of the group. Throughout his career, Durkheim suggested that social phenomena are irreducible to the level of the individual or individual psychology. In so doing, however, he shaped a body of social scientific thought and lenses that are often engaged today, in one way or another.
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Similarly, members of a society can be thought of as cells, its institutions its organs, whose function is to sustain the life of the collective entity, despite the frequent death of cells and the production of new ones. Functionalist analyses examine the social significance of phenomena, that is, the purpose they serve a particular society in maintaining the whole Jarvie Functionalism, as a school of thought in anthropology, emerged early in the twentieth century. Bronislaw Malinowski and A.