Theory of mind in animals is an extension to non-human animals of the philosophical and psychological concept of theory of mind ToM , sometimes known as mentalisation or mind-reading. It involves an inquiry into whether animals have the ability to attribute mental states such as intention , desires , pretending , knowledge to themselves and others, including recognition that others have mental states that are different from their own. The existence of theory of mind in animals is controversial. On the one hand, one hypothesis proposes that some animals have complex cognitive processes which allow them to attribute mental states to other individuals, sometimes called "mind-reading". A second, more parsimonious, hypothesis proposes that animals lack these skills and that they depend instead on more simple learning processes such as associative learning ;  or in other words, they are simply behaviour-reading. Several studies have been designed specifically to test whether animals possess theory of mind by using interspecific or intraspecific communication.
Evaluation of a Psychodynamic Theory of Personality Development
Evaluation of Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: [Essay Example], words GradesFixer
Furthermore, sufferers of autism tend to have very narrow interests in a specific field, and so they typically prefer to engage in the same types of routine behaviours which are often accompanied by a resistance to change Baron-Cohen, Several theories have been proposed to explain the effects of autism. One such theory is the empathising-systemising E-S theory, which states that autistics may suffer from the triad of impairments previously discussed due to deficits in empathising and an intact or above average ability in systemising Baron-Cohen, This essay will expand upon this theory by critically evaluating the extreme male brain EMB theory of autism, which is itself an expansion of the E-S theory, and then conclude with a discussion as to how effectively the EMB theory explains autism. As with the E-S theory, the EMB theory Baron-Cohen, states that autism can be better understood using the two psychological dimensions of empathising and systemising. Empathising can be defined as the ability to interpret an emotional state and then respond appropriately to it Baron-Cohen, , and the EMB theory states that females tend to be better than males in their ability to do this. Support for this proposal comes from several sources.
The Theory of Dualism by Philosopher René Descartes
By Dr. Saul McLeod , published Before you write your essay it's important to analyse the task and understand exactly what the essay question is asking. It is possible your lecturer will give you some advice - pay attention to this as it will help you plan your answer. Next conduct preliminary reading based on your lecture notes.
Sigmund Freud he was Jewish and educated in Vienna, where he trained in medicine. Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. He was the first psychologist to recognise the importance of the conscious and unconscious mind. His theory was psychoanalysis.