In rhetoric, refutation is the part of an argument in which a speaker or writer counters opposing points of view. Refutation "makes the whole process exciting by relating ideas and arguments from one team to those of the other" The Debater's Guide , In speeches, refutation and confirmation are often presented "conjointly with one another" in the words of the unknown author of Ad Herrenium : support for a claim confirmation can be enhanced by a challenge to the validity of an opposing claim refutation. It is always necessary in a persuasive paper to refute or answer those arguments. A good method for formulating your refutation is to put yourself in the place of your readers, imagining what their objections might be.
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Argumentative Writing | Reading Quiz - Quizizz
About as many are incapable of naming even one of the three branches of the United States government. Fewer than a quarter know who their senators are, and only half are aware that their state has two of them. Democracy is other people, and the ignorance of the many has long galled the few, especially the few who consider themselves intellectuals. Plato, one of the earliest to see democracy as a problem, saw its typical citizen as shiftless and flighty:. It would be much safer, Plato thought, to entrust power to carefully educated guardians. To keep their minds pure of distractions—such as family, money, and the inherent pleasures of naughtiness—he proposed housing them in a eugenically supervised free-love compound where they could be taught to fear the touch of gold and prevented from reading any literature in which the characters have speaking parts, which might lead them to forget themselves. A more practical suggestion came from J.
The Three Appeals of Argument
Originally published December 21, I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all.
Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing invention and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length.